"One of the most consistent biological findings in autism is elevated whole blood serotonin (5-HT) levels found in about 1/3 of cases. Immune abnormalities are also commonly observed in this disorder. Given 5-HT's role as an immunomodulator, possible connections between 5-HT and immune abnormalities in autism are explored in this review. Areas of focus include hyperserotoninemia and cellular immune function, autoantibodies to 5-HT receptors, and 5-HT's role in autoimmunity. Further research is needed to determine the interactions between neuropsychiatric and immune dysfunction in autism and related disorders."
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders via PubMed
Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Gut Microbiota
"A clinical study performed on children with ASD and GI disorders revealed that, compared to children with ASD and no GI symptoms, the children with ASD and GI disorders exhibited a higher prevalence of Clostridiales species on their gut mucosa, which was associated with elevated levels of cytokines, serotonin and tryptophan in mucosal biopsies."
Elevated Urinary Glyphosate and Clostridia Metabolites With Altered Dopamine Metabolism in Triplets With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Suspected Seizure Disorder: A Case Study
"Ingestion of glyphosate in genetically modified organism (GMO) foods and in non-GMO foods exposed to glyphosate by being killed at harvest, termed desiccation, can lead to elevated glyphosate in the gastrointestinal tract, which in turn leads to an alteration of the intestinal microbial flora in which harmful species such as Clostridia replace beneficial microorganisms."
Source: Integrative Medicine via PubMed